It is caused by bacteria Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides, small-colony type (SC).
CBPP is endemic in Africa in areas between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
CBPP can cause loses from 20% to up to 80%. Morbidity and mortality vary between different pathogen strains. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) affects 27 countries in Africa at an estimated annual cost of US $2 billion.
Infection spreads by aerosol from cough, by direct contact with infected animals, or through placenta to the unborn calf. Fomites are not a major source of transmission.
The incubation period is one to three months. A few cattle may die of peracute disease with no symptoms other than fever. Acute symptoms include fever, lethargy, cough, extended necks and laboured breathing, and loss of appetite and milk production. Calves may develop arthritis and lameness. After initial acute faze, the infection often becomes chronic.
Outbreaks are eradicated with quarantines, slaughter of infected and in-contact animals, and cleaning and disinfection. Vaccines are available and have helped to control the disease in endemic areas.
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