African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs, warthogs, European wild boar and American wild pigs.

Causative agent

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus, which is the only member of the Asfivirus genus within the Asfarviridae family.


Traditionally Sub-Saharan Africa, and more recently a wide area across Eastern Eurasia.


The mortality rate can be as high as 100%. Moderately virulent forms of the virus produce less intense symptoms though mortality can still range from 30-70%.


The virus is highly contagious and easily spreads from infected swine by direct and indirect contact, ticks, fomites and ingestion of infected by-products. Persistence of the virus is possible in swine and warthogs post-infection. Ticks feeding on infected swine remain a source of infection in the environment.

Clinical signs

The incubation period is five to 19 days. The disease is associated with external and internal haemorrhaging and is often fatal. Clinical signs range from peracute fatality with highly virulent strains, to acute, sub-acute and even chronic forms of the disease with lower mortality rates characterised by high fever and haemorrhagic lesions in the skin, joints and internal organs. Abortions may be the first event seen in an outbreak.


No vaccine or therapy, apart from supportive, is currently available for ASF. For further information, view our ASF product development work.