Collectively, smallholder poultry farmers around the world provide a large market for livestock veterinary products. But this crucial segment has traditionally been unserved by pharmaceutical companies, often because smallholder markets are viewed as non-profitable and not sustainable. However, more and more smallholders are willing to pay for veterinary products such as vaccines to protect their crucial investments. In India, smallholder farmers rearing poultry are proving that a market does exist and service provision is profitable to vaccine manufacturers, local distributors, vaccinators and even to the farmers themselves who are benefiting from the Newcastle Disease vaccine.