Home Work Product development Large Ruminant Programmes
East Coast Fever, Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Animal African Trypanosomosis, Rift Valley Fever and Brucellosis

East Coast Fever (ECF) Overview and Objectives

The ECF-ITM vaccine is in increasing demand amongst cattle producers in affected regions but it presents numerous technical and practical challenges in its manufacture, registration, storage, transportation and administration. GALVmed’s R&D activities are seeking to alleviate some of these practical constraints through a programme of work that:

  • Significantly improves the vaccine production process and, potentially, provides a more practical product amenable to the challenges of field administration.
  • Achieves full registration of ECF-ITM with relevant national authorities.


Current and Future Programme Activities

  1. A range of developments have the potential to enhance the production and release process of the ECF-ITM vaccine. A number of these proposals will be reviewed by the ECF-ITM Core Technical Team in 2015.
  2. Current registration requirements for ECF-ITM involve provisional arrangements with the respective regulatory bodies. GALVmed will obtain agreement on an appropriate long-term structure of registration with these bodies.
  3. GALVmed also participates in the ECF Consortium, which is led from ILRI, Nairobi. In partnership with CTTBD, GALVmed will continue to support advances in product continuity of supply and vaccine technologies.

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) Overview and Objectives

There are currently limited disease control options for smallholders facing this major disease of cattle in Africa. In seeking to address this situation, GALVmed is working on three interrelated programmes of work focussing on:

  • Evaluating the use of antimicrobials as part of an integrated disease control programme.
  • Evaluating the BEN-1 vaccine from Harbin Veterinary Institute, China with a potential view to future development.
  • Developing an improved production process for the existing T1/44 vaccine.

Current and Future Programme Activities

  1. GALVmed is developing the data from antimicrobial therapy to assess the potential for developing an integrated control programme (vaccination and therapy with antimicrobials) for CBPP. If successful, field trials will then be proposed to determine the optimum combination of approaches to CBPP control.
  2. The BEN-1 vaccine is an attenuated vaccine developed in China in the 1960s to control the disease. It is currently being evaluated in African trials (2014 – 2015) for safety and efficacy through a Chinese-led consortium with GALVmed coordinating. Positive results will see it progress through further development and registration with the objective of providing a vaccine option with improved safety and duration of immunity.
  3. The attenuated T1/44 vaccine is in current field use. GALVmed will investigate improved production processes aimed at improving the performance of the vaccine and transferring this production process to a commercial partner.

Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT) Overview and Objectives

Since 2011, GALVmed has undertaken a substantial programme of work to develop a range of products for this major African livestock disease. Early work included the development of an anti-disease vaccine candidate but this failed to progress beyond exploratory stages of development. The objectives of the current and future programmes of this work are:

  • The development of a new class of trypanocides for therapeutic and prophylactic field use.
  • The development of a pen-side diagnostic for field use.
  • The development of improved integrated control methods at the farm/village level resulting in more effective use of the full range of vector and disease control measures.
  • Improved quality and regulatory control of trypanocides in Africa to counter the growing problem of counterfeit and substandard drugs.

Current and Future Programme Activities

  1. Drug discovery work is taking place through a substantial network of partners and is the major focus of the Tryps 2 programme (funded currently to March 2016). The specific objectives of this work are one therapeutic candidate and one late-stage prophylactic compound to be transferred to a commercial company for full development. Additionally, a comprehensive backup pipeline of compounds to be made available.
  2. One new pen-side diagnostic test will be licensed to a commercial company for subsequent production and marketing.
  3. Under the Tryps 2 programme, continuing support for improved trypanocide regulation and quality control is being provided through capacity building activities in two African laboratories.
  4. Developing a better understanding of the integrated use of diagnostics, trypanocides, trypanotolerant breeds and vector control methods at the farm/community level in different farming and eco-systems.

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Overview and Objectives

Significant GALVmed R&D effort has been focused on this disease with a substantial emphasis on the Clone 13 vaccine. Progress has, however, been limited and a strategic review will be completed in 2015 of current activities and the possible implementation of new approaches. The broad objectives for the period are:

  • Improving the stability of the Clone 13 vaccine, which is holding back other RVF initiatives.
  • Developing a co-administered RVF and Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) Vaccine for cattle.
  • Reviewing and assessing the potential for a RVF vaccine bank.
  • Developing a RVF penside diagnostic test.
  • Considering the development of an alternative RVF vaccine.
  • Incorporating RVF within the proposed small ruminant multivalent vaccine.

Current and Future Programme Activities

  1. Improve the stability of the Clone 13 vaccine through a focussed lyophilisation optimisation programme. This is due to be completed at the end of 2015 with the outcome determining related RVF work packages incorporating the Clone 13 vaccine.
  2. Subject to (1) above, develop and register a co-administered RVF-LSD combination vaccine for cattle. Requirements for the combined product dossier content to be defined in mid-2015.
  3. The establishment of a RVF vaccine bank has been a long time GALVmed objective. However, there are both tactical and technical questions as to the validity and utility of such an approach. GALVmed will re-evaluate this objective while defining the technical options and presenting findings and recommendations to partners and donors.
  4. The development of an RVF pen-side assay is largely complete. Some ongoing optimisation work is still taking place and will be completed for transfer to a commercial partner by 2016.

The potential inclusion of RVF within the proposed small ruminant multivalent vaccines.

Brucellosis Overview and Programme Activities

GALVmed has two small Brucella-related programmes of work with limited objectives. The first relates to the use of antimicrobials for treatment of Brucella in small ruminants and the second to the OIE-stipulated minimum release titre for Brucella vaccines.

  1. In conjunction with the United States Department for Agriculture (USDA), GALVmed is assessing the value of new macrolide antibiotics in the control of brucellosis. This study will develop data to inform subsequent considerations for developing integrated control strategies for Brucellosis.
  2. GALVmed will facilitate a review of the current OIE manual minimum release titre for Brucella vaccines. If this can be effectively reduced, it will increase the manufacturing viability of this technically challenging vaccine.